ISO Certification – Hidden Revenue Streams For ISO Registrars

The problem:

Despite significant developments in the IT and Internet technologies, many organizations, including those of significant sizes, continue to use ineffective and inefficient paper-based processes for collecting and analyzing quality, environmental and other management systems data. Delays in availability of system performance indicators negatively affect management ability to make timely tactical and strategic business decisions. While there are numerous electronic and Internet-based solutions on the market offering computerized approaches to handling elements of and entire management systems, cost of such solutions is prohibitive for majority of small- and medium-size enterprises.

The solution:

A simple solution is to develop and offer a competitive and economical Internet-based management system application that provides an attractive margin for the provider registrar and measurable added value to the client.


An established registrar already has customer base with developed business relations, credibility and trust. Marketing and customer acquisition in this environment is expected to be noticeably more efficient than “starting from scratch” with a new product in the marketplace. Prospects may be offered a free trial period for 1 – 3 month. Client’s investment of time and effort to enter the data and high usability of the system will contribute to transitioning a trial user into a paying subscriber. 

Differentiation – unique selling points:

The following unique selling points of this service should be considered: low cost to attract and retain wide range of customers; possible consideration of “seat number”-independent subscription fees to simplify customer cost structure and financial planning; intuitive navigation to win customer loyalty; screen-specific recorded training sessions to reduce customer support costs.


To estimate return on investment (ROI) the following assumptions were made:

– Client base (prospects) – 3,000. This number is twice of the existing customer base and conservatively represents the number of locations that will have separate licenses;
– Customer acquisition rate per month – 1% of client base
– Subscription fees per location – $199.00
– Customer retention rate – 95% per month
– Development cost – $150-200,000
– Marketing, technical support and maintenance costs -$5,000 per month
– First year ROI for one module equals to 96%
– Breakeven point, based on the assumptions above, is reached on the twelfth month of operation for one module
– The second year ROI for one module, based on the assumptions above, equals to some 580%. 

Development and implementation strategies:
On the initial stage, one major management system module (such as documentation management or NC-CAPA) should be developed, validated and implemented. Initial module will include system administration, log-in and security features. Subscription services will be offered to the existing clients. Through the Registrar’s Website and Internet marketing this subscription may be offered to general public as well. While subscriber base growth for the first module, other modules such as calibration, preventive maintenance, training, auditing and others should be developed, implemented and offered to the clients generating additional revenues. Multi-lingual option may be developed to accommodate needs of non-English speaking customers.
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How to Set the ISO For Canon EOS 5D Mark II

The technology of ISO settings on digital cameras replicates the rated speeds of the films of yesteryear. In very general terms, ISO is the sensitivity to light of the sensor in the same way that film speeds were more or less sensitive to light. But there are differences between film and digital sensors; specifically, as the sensitivity setting increases on a digital camera, the output of the sensor is also amplified. This was referred to as grain when we used high-speed films. So, although you have the option of increasing the ISO sensitivity at any point in shooting, the tradeoff in increased amplification or the accumulation of an excessive charge on the pixels is an increase in digital noise. And the result of digital noise is an overall loss of resolution and image quality.

Partly because the 5D Mark II has relatively large pixels on the sensor and because Canon has done a fine job of implementing advanced internal noise-reduction processing, the 5D Mark II stands out as the top performer even at high-sensitivity settings, particularly at exposure times of 30 seconds or less.

In this smart mode borrowed from point-and-shoots, Auto ISO controls the sensitivity of your sensor depending on the Shooting mode you ‘re in. In Full or Creative Auto, P, Tv, or Av, the camera selects between a 100-3200 ISO range. Switch to M, B, or add a Speedlite, and Auto ISO locks in at 400. Auto ISO is shown as an A on the LCD panel when selected and is located at the bottom of the scale by rotating the Main dial counterclockwise after pressing the ISO selection button.

ISO range and Custom Function options

The 5D Mark II offers a wide ISO range, including Auto and settings from 100 to 6400 in 1/3-stop increments or 1/2-stop increments, set by using the options in C.Fn I-01. The ISO range can be expanded to include ISO 50 (shown as L), 12800 (shown as H1), and an incredible 25600 (shown as H2) by setting C.Fn I-03 to On. Be aware that ISO 50 reduces the dynamic range in the highlights by approximately 1 stop, which makes this sensitivity less useful in high contrast light. ISO 50 can be useful in a studio setting by providing flexibility in aperture choice.

With the 5D Mark II, Canon offers an option to reduce or eliminate noise in long exposures.

Using the long-exposure noise-reduction option, available by using C.Fn II-01, noise is totally or virtually eliminated by processing in-camera that ‘s very capable but takes almost as long as the exposure to complete.

Setting the ISO and extended range ISO

To change the ISO setting on the 5D Mark II, follow these steps:

1. Press the ISO selection button above the LCD panel. The current ISO setting appears on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder.

2. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to set a higher sensitivity or counterclockwise to set a lower sensitivity. The camera displays the ISO settings as you turn the dial. If you have ISO expansion turned on by using C.Fn II-01, then ISO 50 is shown as L, ISO 12800 is shown as H1, and 25600 is shown as H2. The ISO option you select remains in effect until you change it again.

To turn on ISO expansion, follow these steps:

1. Press the Menu button and then tilt the Multi-controller until the Custom Function (orange) menu appears.

2. Press the Set button. The Custom Function screen appears, and the Custom Function number control in the top-right corner of the screen is activated.

3. Turn the Quick Control dial to set the C.Fn I number to 03 and then press the Set button. The ISO expansion control is activated.

4. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to select option 1: On and then press the Set button. ISO expansion remains turned on until you change it.

ISO 9001 – A Process Interaction Matrix


One of the requirements of ISO 9001:2000, specified in the paragraph 4.2.2 c), requires a company to develop a quality manual that, among other attributes, shall contain “a description of the interaction between the processes of the quality management system.” Through my experience, as a professional auditor, with dozens of companies around the world, I found that very few businesses had developed practical approaches to address this requirement. Attempts to document process interactions range from busy and hard to read flow charts to establishing cross-reference tables in the quality manual. I observed one of the best tools to address process interaction requirement at Quality Works, a small on-line publishing company.

Initiation of the project

Quality Works, a small Internet-based publishing company, has set a goal to establish compliance with ISO 9001:2000 standard. The Management Team assigned the company’s Business Manager to develop and implement documentation to address new requirements of the standard. While most of the new requirements were simply addressed through preparation of the corresponding procedures and work instructions, documentation of the interaction of the processes created some difficulties. Attempts to document interaction of processes through traditional flow-chart resulted in a hard to read busy document that did not impress the management team.


To address this issue, the management group conducted a brainstorming session to search for a new tool. The group determined that there were two types of the processes: processes related to product realization and processes related to the management system as follows:

Business management processes:

– Documentation management
– Management review
– Internal audit program
– Non-conformity and Corrective & Preventive Action (NC-CAPA) System
– Communication
– Resource management
– Record management
– Information technology

Product realization processes:

– Market analysis
– Product design
– Verification
– Validation
– Product release
– Order processing
– Product delivery
– Customer satisfaction
– Continual improvement

Identification of process interactions

Analyzing system and product realization processes, the management team concluded that virtually all system processes are interrelated. For example, management review may receive inputs from corrective actions, communication, internal audits, etc. Internal audit process receives inputs from all processes within the company and provides feedback or input into all those processes.

Product realization process was found to be more linear than system processes. For example, results of the market analysis initiate product design. Product design leads to verification. If verification is successful, validation of the product takes place. Validation of the product results in product release and finally communication regarding availability of the product. Customer satisfaction and continual improvement close this sequence with a possibility of providing inputs into Product delivery, Order processing, Product release, etc.

To document process interactions, the company elected two tools. The first, top-level definition of the process interaction was documented in the Process Interaction Matrix shown in Figure 1 (see links below). The second tool was a well-known technique of flow-charting for those processes that required graphical illustration.


Use of the Process Interaction Matrix at Quality Works proved that it is a helpful concise method of defining and documenting interaction of processes for an ISO 9001:2000 quality management system. Based on our experience, we also realized that the same matrix might be successfully used for other standards requiring definition of the interaction of the processes, such as ISO 13485:2003, ISO/TS 16949 [3] and others.


The author would like to express his gratitude to Maria Allen, the President of Quality Works, for her willingness to conduct and publish this case study.


[1] ISO 9001:2000 Quality management systems – Requirements

[2] ISO 13485:2003 Medical devises – Quality management systems – Requirements for regulatory purposes

[3] ISO/TS 16949 Quality management systems – particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2000 for automotive production and relevant service part organizations.

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Managing Risk in Information Technology

As information technology increasingly falls within the scope of corporate governance, so management must increasingly focus on the management of risk to the achievement of its business objectives.

There are two fundamental components of effective management of risk in information and information technology: the first relates to an organization’s strategic deployment of information technology in order to achieve its corporate goals, the second relates to risks to those assets themselves. IT systems usually represent significant investments of financial and executive resources. The way in which they are planned, managed and measured should therefore be a key management accountability, as should the way in which risks associated with information assets themselves are managed.

Clearly, well managed information technology is a business enabler. Every deployment of information technology brings with it immediate risks to the organization and, therefore, every director or executive who deploys, or manager who makes any use of, information technology needs to understand these risks and the steps that should be taken to counter them.

ITIL has long provided an extensive collection of best practice IT management processes and guidance. In spite of an extensive range of practitioner-orientated certified qualifications, it is not possible for any organization to prove – to its management, let alone an external third party – that it has taken the risk-reduction step of implementing best practice.

More than that, ITIL is particularly weak where information security management is concerned – the ITIL book on information security really does no more than refer to a now very out-of-date version of ISO 17799, the information security code of practice.

The emergence of the international IT Service Management ISO 27001 and Information Security Management (ISO20000) standards changes all this. They make it possible for organizations that have successfully implemented an ITIL environment to be externally certificated as having information security and IT service management processes that meet an international standard; organizations that demonstrate – to customers and potential customers – the quality and security of their IT services and information security processes achieve significant competitive advantages.

Information Security Risk

The value of an independent information security standard may be more immediately obvious to the ITIL practitioner than an IT service management one. The proliferation of increasingly complex, sophisticated and global threats to information security, in combination with the compliance requirements of a flood of computer- and privacy-related regulation around the world, is driving organizations to take a more strategic view of information security. It has become clear that hardware-, software- or vendor-driven solutions to individual information security challenges are, on their own, dangerously inadequate. ISO/IEC 27001 (what was BS7799) helps organizations make the step to sytematically managing and controlling risk to their information assets.

IT Process Risk

IT must be managed systematically to support the organization in achieving its business objectives, or it will disrupt business processes and undermine business activity. IT management, of course, has its own processes – and many of these processes are common across organizations of all sizes and in many sectors. Processes deployed to manage the IT organization itself need both to be effective and to ensure that the IT organization delivers against business needs. IT service management is a concept that embraces the notion that the IT organization (known, in ISO/IEC 20000 as in ITIL, as the “service provider”) exists to deliver services to business users, in line with business needs, and to ensure the most cost-effective use of IT assets within that overall context. ITIL, the IT Infrastructure Library, emerged as a collection of best practices that could be used in various organizations. ISO/IEC 20000, the IT service management standard, provides a best-practice specification that sits on top of the ITIL.

Regulatory and Compliance Risk

All organizations are subject to a range of information-related national and international legislation and regulatory requirements. These range from broad corporate governance guidelines to the detailed requirements of specific regulations. UK organizations are subject to some, or all, of:

* Combined Code and Turnbull Guidance (UK)

* Basel2

* EU data protection, privacy regimes

* Sectoral regulation: FSA (1) , MiFID (2) , AML (3)

* Human Rights Act, Regulatation of Investigatory Powers Act

* Computer misuse regulation

Those organizations with US operations may also be subject to US regulations such as Sarbanes Oxley and SEC regulations, as well as sectoral regulation such as GLBA (4), HIPAA (5) and USA PATRIOT Act. Most organizations are possibly also subject to US state laws that appear to have wider applicability, including SB 1386 (California Information Practice Act) and OPPA (6) . Compliance depends as much on information security as on IT processes and services.

Many of these regulations have emerged only recently and most have not yet been adequately tested in the courts. There has been no co-ordinated national or international effort to ensure that many of these regulations – particularly those around personal privacy and data protection – are effectively co-ordinated. As a result, there are overlaps and conflicts between many of these regulations and, while this is of little importance to organizations trading exclusively within one jurisdiction, the reality is that many enterprises today are trading on an international basis, particularly if they have a website or are connected to the Internet.

Management Systems

A management system is a formal, organized approach used by an organization to manage one or more components of their business, including quality, the environment and occupational health and safety, information security and IT service management. Most organizations – particularly younger, less mature ones, have some form of management system in place, even if they’re not aware of it. More developed organizations use formal management systems which they have certified by a third party for conformance to a management system standard. Organizations that use formal management systems today include corporations, medium- and small-sized businesses, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

Standards and Certifications

Formal standards provide a specification against which aspects of an organization’s management sytsem can be independently audited by an accredited certification body and, if the management system is found to conform to the specification, the organization can be issued with a formal certificate confirming this. Organizations that are certificated to ISO 9000 will already be familiar with the certification process.

Integrated Management Systems

Organizations can choose to certify their management systems to more than one standard. This enables them to integrate the processes that are common – management review, corrective and preventative action, control of documents and records, and internal quality audits – to each of the standards in which they are interested. There is already an alignment of clauses in ISO 9000, ISO 14001 (the environmental management system standard) and OHSAS 18001 (the health and safety management standard) that supports this integration, and which enables organizations to benefit from lower cost initial audits, fewer surveillance visits and which, most importantly, allows organizations to ‘join up’ their management systems.

The emergence of these international standards now enables organizations to develop an integrated IT management system that is capable of multiple certification and of external, third party audit, while drawing simultaneously on the deeper best-practice contained in ITIL. This is a huge step forward for the ITIL world.


(1)Financial Services Authority

(2)Markets in Financial Instruments Directive

(3)Anti-money laundering regulations

(4)Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

(5)Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

(6)Online Personal Privacy Act

ISO 9001 Consulting – A Risk Management Approach

The Problem With How Consultants Implement ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems

ISO 9001 requires that an organization identify and implement effective controls over its quality management processes. Businesses will typically identify its processes under typical categories such as operational processes, support processes and outsourced processes. Collectively the controls exercised over these processes will make up their quality management system (QMS). Many ISO 9001 Consultants and organizations go about implementing QMS process controls in a very superficial manner resulting in a system that does not provide any value to the organization and consequently any return on the cost of its investment. The main reason they got certification was to satisfy a customer contractual requirement.

But ISO 9001 can do a whole lot more for an organization if implemented the right way. Effective risk management control over each QMS process and the interaction between processes can result in huge improvements in an organizations productivity and bottom line.

The Solution: So how does an organization use risk management to control its processes?

A process typically has inputs, outputs and value-adding activity. Each of these process characteristics use various resources. These resources include manpower, materials, machinery and equipment, facility and environment, methods, management, etc. These resources are all variables and subject to risk in their use.

An organization must identify the nature and degree of such risk and implement appropriate controls over them. Tools such as Fishbone analysis or FMEA’s (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) may be used to perform this risk analysis. A discussion on how to use these risk analysis tools will be left to another article.

Listed below are some of the controls an organization should consider for each of the resources used in any QMS process.


– Inventory management

– Inspections & Tests

– Standards & Specifications

– Supplier Management

– Identification & Traceability

– Turnover & Preservation


– Capability, capacity and & technology

– Engineering & support

– Inspection, measuring & test equipment

– Tools, dies & fixtures

– Maintenance & supplies

– Equipment layout


– Skills, knowledge & experience

– Training

– Responsibility & Authority

– Empowerment, Motivation & Morale

– Adequate staffing

– Health & Safety


– Building & facilities

– Environment controls

– HVAC and other utilities

– Housekeeping, health & safety

– Lighting, air quality & noise

– Contingency/emergency measures


– Systems & Procedures

– Inspection & Tests

– Quality Plans & Checklists

– Work Instructions

– Bill of manufacture/assembly

– Technology/automation/robotics

– operational and administrative software

– Process flowcharts

– FMEA’s & process controls

– Drawings & blueprints


– Objectives/tracking/review/improvement

– Standards/codes/regulations

– Specifications/tolerances/criteria/tolerances

– Operational data/statistics/SPC

– Efficiency & effectiveness

– Customer Satisfaction

– Bench-marking


– Leadership & Planning

– Policies & Objectives

– Commitment & involvement

– Organization & resources

– Follow-up & review

– Communication

How To Use These QMS Process Variables:

– Determine which of these resources variables apply to each process identified in your QMS.

– Determine which combination of controls apply to that process variable – process input, output or value-adding activity.

– Implement the controls you have identified and verify their effectiveness.

This article provides a brief overview to using a risk management approach to effectively implementing ISO 9001 in an organization. Keep in mind that ISO 9001 is a business management tool. So the benefits you get from using it is directly related to how effectively you use it. The risk management approach is a very powerful way to use ISO 9001 to effectively control your business and benefit significantly in terms of customer satisfaction and profitability.

ISO 9001 Vs Six Sigma

I won’t get into the history and background of each process management approach. You only have to Google “Six Sigma” or “ISO 9001” to get your fair share of information. This article will go for the jugular on a topic that has been on my mind for some time. I am not trained in Six Sigma but I have always respected the program from afar and I have researched enough on this topic to give a fairly educated opinion. I can appreciate its call to action and I understand there is a strong group of supporters but I honestly feel like Six Sigma is yesterday’s fad. It has been touted in best-selling business books but that was 10 years ago.

Before I get off-topic, let’s jump straight into a bullet list that lists the problems with Six Sigma:

1. 3M, GE, Home Depot, Ford and other major companies are pulling back on Six Sigma because research shows that customer satisfaction and employee morale has suffered

a. On the other hand, customer Satisfaction is a major theme of ISO 9001 as Customer Focus is one of the eight ISO 9001 management principles.

2. Over analyzing

a. On the other hand, ISO 9001 simply suggests that your business should take a Factual Approach to Decision Making. This means making informed decisions and ensuring data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable and accessible to those who need it. ISO 9001 wants you to use the facts but to also balance it with experience and intuition.

3. Six Sigma and innovation do not co-exist in the same world

a. Another major theme of ISO 9001 is Continual Improvement. Unlike Six Sigma, ISO 9001 puts innovation squarely on the roadmap for organizational success.

4. It’s all about numbers and not about customers

a. Again, ISO 9001 makes it abundantly clear throughout the standard that Customer Focus is a key element to business success.

5. Six Sigma = cost cutting. Surely, your business exists do to more than just cut costs?

a. ISO 9001 reminds us that in addition to cutting costs, we also have to focus on Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships, Leadership, Involvement of People and more.

6. Six Sigma = micromanaging

a. ISO 9001 is anything but micromanaging if it is well-implemented by an experienced consultant. The standard only required six documented procedures. A smooth-running ISO 9001 certified company is one that operates on its own positive, organic momentum.

7. It is elitist. Since when should a company only take direction from Black Belts? Whatever happened to everyone in a company acting as a process improver?

a. Not the case with ISO 9001. Only one central role of Management Representative needs to be assigned. As for the rest of the employees, everyone is encouraged to play their part.

8. It does not incorporate information technology – a huge force that can impact processes

a. There isn’t anything specifically written into ISO 9001 speaking to Information Technology. However, several sections of the standard allow ample opportunity for IT to shine and play a central role.

9. It espouses incremental improvement, not radical breakthroughs

a. One of my personal favorite Management Principles of ISO 9001 is Continual Improvement.

10. Read any article about Six Sigma and you are bound to find a disclaimer section addressing concerns or issues with it.

a. ISO 9001 does not generate the same kind of backlash Six Sigma is getting

11. A Fortune 500 article stated that “of 58 large companies that have announced Six Sigma programs, 91% have trailed the S&P 500 since”

a. On the other hand, a Harvard Business School Working Paper by David I. Levine and Michael W. Toffel published on January 18, 2010 concludes that ISO 9001 delivers value, is not a fad, increases sales by roughly 10%, and more. The authors mention “…the strength and consistency of our findings leads us to shift our own priors in favor of the hypothesis that ISO 9001 adoption is more beneficial than we had anticipated.”

12. It is based on arbitrary standards

a. 3.4 defects per million opportunities sounds great for some industries assuming their products are life-threatening or simply cannot endure any margin of error. But would you apply the same strict standard to your typical contact centre or service provider? Why does it need to be six standard deviations? This is not explained. Also, Six Sigma operates on the assumption that process data always conforms to a normal distribution model.

Hopefully this helps shed more light on the controversial subject of comparing Six Sigma to ISO 9001.

ISO Consultants’ Services – Essential to Any Small or Large Industry

International Organization for Standardization or ISO is an autonomous, non-governmental membership group and the largest creator of the voluntary International Standards in the world. International Standards can make things work and provide the first-class specifications for goods, services or the systems, to ensure the quality, security and effectiveness. This group has brought out over 19,500 International Standards including almost every business, from technology, to safety of food, agriculture and also healthcare. These International Standards can impact everyone, in all places.

In the realization of the best management system, some of the organizations are found to depend on their own staff but some make use of the services of any external ISO consultant. The responsibility of a ISO Consultant is to make sure that the ultimate management system is able to meet the planned objectives of organizations in the most efficient and successful way. Even while hiring the services of any such consultant, the concern and dedication of the organizations’ top management are major factors for recognition of a quality management system.

A competent consultant would always be ethical, adaptable, observant, communicative, responsible, decisive, sensible and ISO certified professional. The ISO consultant must also have knowledge of the legal and regulatory requirements related to the companies’ activities, as well as practical information of the organization’s systems, products and also customer expectations before starting the consulting services.

The task of any genuine ISO Consultancy –

The major duties of these ISO Consultants are summed up here –

1. ISO consultants can write an overly complicated or elaborate ISO 9001 quality manual along with quality procedures.

2. Such ISO Consultant Services would recognize the work in areas, which comprise marketing, management as well as accounting.

3. They assist in improving the businesses through evaluating weaknesses and suggesting solutions.

4. Their task may consist of reviewing fiscal statements, assessing competitors and examining business practices.

5. When the research is accomplished, these consultants can build up a new business model or arrange recommendations and offer them.

6. They would make a plan and then carry out an audit in contract with the process as per ISO 19011: 2002. Moreover, they gather intention confirmation by way of diverse techniques and decide on conventionality to the requirements of the Quality Management System.

ISO is beneficial to all SMEs

ISO standards help the industries to find new markets for the goods and make the production and managing of materials more protected. Moreover, this kind of standards can make market access easier, especially for SMEs, because of the reduced cost and time to the market. ISO standards can also improve the brand recognition and offer customers the assurance that a technology is tested and dependable. Besides, in any business, it is always seen that scalability is essential if they are to speed up production and contend with the big players in the market; ISO 9001, ISO 14001 can give them the process control to perform that.

Monitoring the Procedure of ISO Documentation and Quality Management

The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) documentation & quality management is a certification that companies attain to prove their quality standards. It consists of a family of quality management system standards that companies need for recognition and breaking down their barriers of trade. To date, it covers almost all aspects of business and technology, spanning from agriculture to high technology industries.

The idea of maintaining these standards is to ensure that your business and its operations are working under standards recommended by global experts. Hence, certification of the same allows businesses to grow and establish business relationships faster. Every business, regardless of its size, is advised to follow a ‘process approach’ which is the management and control of the interactions between processes. A generic process begins with an input which goes into a set of activities that result into an output. The input and output can be tangible or intangible, but ISO is concerned with the control, monitoring and measurement of the processes.

Purpose of Monitoring and Quality Management:

The purpose of monitoring is manifold. Monitoring a process means conducting a sequence of planned measurements or observations to ensure whether control measures are operating as required. Conducting this activity enables the entity to take multiple actions:

Identify those critical limits in operations where process adjustments need to be triggered

  • Identify those deviations which lead to a loss of control
  • Create a printed documentation of the process control system

In a normal course of business, a typical monitoring and quality management activity could be:

  • Measuring temperature of a liquid
  • Marking the time it takes to complete a task
  • Observing pH levels of a solution
  • Measuring moisture levels of a product or packaging
  • Recording behaviour of chemicals over a period of time/aging

These monitoring activities are essentially conducted by an apparatus or the appropriate equipment such as a:

  • Timer
  • Thermometer
  • Weight scales
  • Chemical testing equipment

Process of Monitoring
Monitoring is done by two broad procedures, depending on practicality.

  1. Continuous
  2. Discontinuous

A continuous inspection is generally carried out by machines or equipment, sensors or testers that monitor the process at all times. This means that every product is tested and tried before it is sent to the output stage of the process. E.g. a light bulb manufacturing concern tests every bulb before packaging by a tester and then sorted in the end to ensure zero tolerance policy at all times.

A discontinuous process or inspection means that sampling is done at a certain frequency to ensure quality assurance of the product. It is done for those concerns where the output is at a very large scale or monitoring every delivery becomes more costly than the process itself. E.g. a plastic film manufacturing concern that produces plastic films continuously; or, a call center where all calls are recorded but a random few are counter-checked for behavior. This is more cost-effective but also cannot guarantee a zero tolerance policy on finished goods/services rendered.

Process of Quality Management.

A continual quality management system involves a repetitive process of ensuring constant customer satisfaction. A generic process begins with an input which is processed in to an output. The output reaches the customer but either via customer feedback or the monitoring process the product/service in measured and improved until management decision is required. If there is an improvement required then the cycle restarts from the input stage so that a better output materializes.

Corporate Manuals

Corporate manuals for ISO documentation & quality management are practical for every kind of business. Every business runs a common generic process that includes an input, process and finally and output. Monitoring merely ensures control measures are in order and quality management procedures minimize customer dissatisfaction at all times. Industry specific tools are however available to avoid unnecessary costs of wastage and errors. These manuals carry an important role in developing a level playing field for smaller companies to access other markets and ensure fair global trade.